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Archaeologist divide the prehistory of Florida into specific cultural terms based upon dates, how the people lived and climate. The basic cultural periods for the Indian River area are: Paleoindian, Archaic, Malabar and Historic Periods. All have subdivisions and a summary of these periods are shown below:

We are within what archaeologists call the East and Central cultural area which encompasses a large region that stretches from the Florida border with eastern Georgia to the northern terminus of the wetlands of the Kissimmee River drainage and west to within thirty miles of Tampa Bay (Figure 1). That the region in prehistory represented a unified and distinct cultural entity throughout its geographical extent is more of a convention adopted by archaeologists than a true picture of social, political, and cultural uniformity. In reality, at least seven distinct culture regions border the East and Central area. The primary trait that is common throughout the area, both within its heartland and along its varied borders, is the distinctive St. Johns pottery. Outside the heartland, however, along the borders, the distribution of St. Johns pottery decreases and it often becomes a minority ware or changes in technological attributes. Other traits such as mound building, modes of subsistence, and seasonal movements also differ along the regional borders. The cultural periods within this region begin, as with all of Florida, in the Paleoindian Period and end with the regional culture known as Malabar II (Table 1).

Indian River Cultural Area

Centered on the Indian River, the Indian River region was originally defined by Irving Rouse in 1951 as stretching from near the northern boundary of Brevard County south to St. Lucie Inlet, a distance of some 190 kilometers (km) or 118 miles (mi). From east to west it extended from the Atlantic seaboard to the upper St. Johns River basin, an average distance of about 50 km (31 mi) (Figure 2). He further defined the post-Archaic Malabar culture of the region, the archaeological antecedent of the historic Ais whose territory mirrored the Indian River region. Relying primarily on the widespread distribution of St. Johns pottery, Milanich and Fairbanks in 1980 later opted to combine the St. Johns and Indian River regions to form the East and Central Lakes District, which covered nearly the entire eastern half of peninsular Florida. Following the results of a series of archaeological investigations in the 1980s, however, researchers again spotlighted the Indian River region as a distinct area or transitional zone and have advocated the continued use of Malabar terminology.

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Figure 1. Cultural areas of Florida (as defined by Milanich 1994).

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Figure 2. Counties and natural features that comprise the Indian River Cultural Area.

Table 1. Prehistoric Cultural Periods of East Central Florida
Cultural Period Cultural Traits
15,000 BC Paleoindian Small bands of migratory hunters and gatherers.
9,500 BC
   Early Archaic
   Middle Archaic
   Late Archaic
      Mt. Taylor
Small groups of migratory hunters and gatherers living within smaller territories. Burials in ponds. Some evidence of aquatic resources exploitation early. Beginning of middens by Middle Archaic. Steatite vessels appear by Mt. Taylor. Regionalism begins.
1,000 BC Orange First appearance of ceramics. Increased sedentism.
500 BC - 100 AD
Malabar I
   Malabar Ia
   Malabar Ib
Conditions similar to present. Continuation of hunter/gatherer/fisher subsistence. Villages with smaller special use camps. Burial mounds.
750-1565 AD
Malabar II
   Malabar IIa
   Malabar IIb
   Malabar IIc
First appearance of check-stamped ceramics. Large populations. Appearance of non-local objects. European artifacts 1513+. Wreck salvaging. Ambergris collection.

As noted by Rouse, the Indian River is the dominant geographic feature in the region. Technically, the Indian River is a restricted coastal lagoon with multiple openings to the Atlantic Ocean. Ponce de Leon Inlet lies to the north and St. Lucie Inlet to the south, with Sebastian Inlet in the middle. The Indian River is part of a larger lagoonal system known as the Indian River Lagoon, which extends as far south as Jupiter inlet and includes Mosquito Lagoon and Banana River to the north and south of Merritt Island, respectively. Combined this watershed extends about 250 km (155 mi) along Florida's east coast with the mainland peninsula comprises the western edge of the the Indian River Lagoon. Water movement is typically wind driven and non-tidal except at the inlets where tides do play a role. The the Indian River Lagoon varies in width from just less than 1.6 km (1 mi) to 5 km (3.1 mi) and averages only 1 m (3.3 ft) in depth.

The IRCA includes a chain of islands along the coast from St. Lucie Inlet north to Cocoa Beach. From this point north to Ponce Inlet the coastal geomorphology becomes more complex. Cocoa Beach has a series of islands within the Banana River known locally as the Thousand Islands. To the north are the Merritt Island landform and the Cape Canaveral area, which are actually two barrier islands joined at the north near Mosquito Lagoon. Merritt Island is the older of the two having been created around 24,000 years ago, whereas Cape Canaveral is believed to have been formed approximately 7,000 years ago. Ecologically the coastal area is a diverse mosaic of eight ecosystems: mangrove and salt marshes, seagrass habitats, oak forest/maritime hammock, pine flatwoods, oak/saw palmetto scrub, and the beach and dune zone .

Positioned along the interface between temperate (north) and subtropical (south) climatic zones, the Indian River Lagoon system touts among the highest levels of biodiversity of any estuary in North America, being home to more than 3000 different plants and animals. It serves as a spawning and nursery ground for many different species of oceanic and lagoon fish and shellfish, and has one of the most diverse bird populations in America. The Cape Canaveral coast has been identified as one of the largest lemon shark nurseries and one of the largest sea turtle nesting areas along the eastern United States. Because the Indian River Lagoon lies between temperate and tropical climatic zones, it is often labeled an environmental transitional zone. The same can be said for the Indian River culture area which has long been considered a cultural transitional zone. The extent to which the two are related is unknown but worthy of further research.

Away from the coast, the primary hydric feature is the upper (southern) St. Johns River and its associated freshwater marshes, which form the western boundary of the Indian River region. In this area, the river channel varies from 2-36 km (1.2 to 22.4 mi) in width and consists of a series of braided lakes that cut through a vast marsh of wetland grasses. Ecologically the Upper St. Johns River basin is a mix of marsh, both mesic and hydric hammocks, flatwoods, and hardwood swamps . Situated between the St. Johns River drainage and the Indian River is the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, a relic dune formation that reaches a maximum height of more than 16 m or 52.5 ft.

In his study of the region, Rouse appears somewhat unimpressed, as was apparent in his description of the Malabar culture in 1951:

"...Indian River Culture is transitional between those of the Northern St. Johns and Glades-Kissimmee areas, in that it has some of the characteristics of each without, however, sharing in the best achievements of either.....Indian River culture appears remarkably nondescript when compared with the cultural traditions of the surrounding areas...the Indian River area has no very distinctive traits of its own, its unity being derived primarily from the simplicity of its culture relative to those of the surrounding areas."

This characterization of the region remains to this day as many still perceive Indian River as conservative and culturally stunted.

Paleoindian Period (15,000 - 9,500 B.C.)

The earliest dates confirming the human occupation of Florida dates to approximately 15,500 B.C. and lasted until 9,500 B.C. (Table 1). During this period, Florida was twice the size it is today with sea levels 60 to 100 m (197-328 ft) lower, exposing large areas of the continental shelf. The east coast of Florida was as much as 60 km (37 mi) further east than at present and overall the environment of Florida was considerably drier than it is today.

Vegetation of north Florida was open pine forest with oak/hickory areas and local and dune scrub except where springs and rivers brought life to the dry conditions. These hammock areas supported a suite of animal and plant life that exceeded what would have been available in the dry forests alone. By 10,000 years ago, the forests became denser, while oaks and pines filled in previously unforested areas. Oak savannas replaced much of the scrub vegetation of the lower peninsula. Small perched water sources were located in the St. John's and Indian River beds. These areas were probably populated with larger numbers and variety of fauna than other areas of Florida due to more available water resources.

Paleoindian culture was relatively uniform across North America. Originally it was thought Paleoindians traveled in small, highly mobile bands specializing in the hunting of megafauna which included mastodon (Mammut), mammoth (Mammuthus), and horse (Equus) settling only for brief periods when resources such as wild plant food was temporarily plentiful. Aquatic resources are rarely included in discussions of the Paleoindian subsistence, but would have provided a plentiful and stable food source. Hammocks near fresh water sources and the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida would have provided a stable reliable source of fish and shellfish.

Sea level changes have covered up land that was occupied by Paleoindians and archaeological investigation of these sites has been restricted to those located in the interior uplands. Site types include base camps and special procurement sites (e.g. hunting camps and quarries). They are found within interior drainage basins, inundated river valleys, and relic river courses. Paleoindian artifacts exposed in river drainages are the primary source of our knowledge about this period. However this data provides a limited view of Florida's Paleoindian culture. It has been proposed many Paleoindian sites should be located near karst features such as sinkholes because at the end of the Pleistocene climatic conditions were very dry and karst features provided a reliable source of potable water, chert, and attracted fauna

Stone tools associated with the Paleoindian occupations of Florida include Suwannee and Simpson projectile points, hafted drills and knives, hafted and unhafted scrapers, burins and gravers, oval ground stone weights, multi-use tool forms, and a full range of flake tools. Paleoindian diagnostic projectile points in Florida include: Clovis points, Folsom Points, Suwannee Points, and Simpson Points. Non-lithic points include ivory foreshafts which have been recovered from inundated sites in northern Florida. The frequency of these tools is higher at the Aucilla River site than any other in North America .

Archaic Period (9500-3000 B.C.)

The Archaic Period is divided into three distinctive periods that reflect an evolution in culture and subsistence (Table 1). These changes were based upon a reaction to the changing environment and increasing population. The term "Archaic" generally refers to non-agricultural adaptations, hunting-gathering-fishing, that once flourished across large parts of North America as a result of these environmental changes. Archaic peoples gathered plant foods and incorporated a wider range of faunal resources into their diet than their Paleoindian counterparts, and were organized into bands. Populations became more sedentary over time, and pottery, of steatite and clay, was introduced. Tools differed from the earlier period in that the well designed and crafted Paleoindian tools were replaced by simpler, more expendable tools that were more suited to the needs of Archaic peoples.

Site types include base camps, shell middens, and special purpose camps, i.e. hunting camps, quarries and cemeteries. Sites are found on the major rivers or near small streams, ponds and sinkholes. They also occur on the coast albeit infrequently. Shell Mounds along the St. John's River, composed of freshwater shellfish, animal bones, pottery and features indicative of habitation such as hearths, storage pits, and postholes, have been identified that date from 6,000 years ago.

Early Archaic Period (9,500-7,000 B.C.)

The Archaic began with a large-scale change in the environment. During the middle to late Paleoindian Period wide-scale melting of the ice sheets covering the northern latitudes of the planet caused the sea levels to rise and inundate large areas. Water levels continued to rise steadily, and by 8,000 years ago were close to present day. This rise caused an increase in the number of lakes and ponds. The Indian and St. John's Rivers were established and wetlands were developing along the present day coastlines and rivers. The environment was becoming similar to present day Florida but with greater seasonal cycles. Larger settlements close to aquatic resources were established during the Early Archaic with the growth in population. They developed large base camps with smaller foraging camps. Deer remains are well documented from Early Archaic sites in Florida. However, use of aquatic resources was beginning during this period. Archaeologist Dana Ste. Claire in 1988 hypothesized exploitation of marine shell fish may have begun during the Early Archaic Period in the St. Johns area. The presence of diverse and high yield plant food made plant utilization increasingly advantageous as well. Changes in the tool assemblage reflect the changes in subsistence patterns. The stemmed point with corner and side notching replaces the fluted projectile point. The use of muck lake-bogs-ponds for internment of the dead has been discovered at three sites in Florida. The Bay West, Republic Groves and Oak Grove are cemetery sites where humans were buried within the shallow margins of small ponds, peat bogs or muck lakes. This evidence would suggest that this burial practice was not uncommon.

Middle Archaic Period (7,000-5,500 B.C.)

The Middle Archaic Period began around 7,000 B.C. (Table 1) and is characterized by increasing sedentarism of the populations, population localization and diversity. Wetlands continued to expand and there was increased precipitation. Pine swamps were established by the end of this period. By the end of the Middle Archaic, sea levels had raised a total of 26 m (85 ft) and the coastal margins became more productive. The Middle Archaic can be characterized as a period of increased diversity in resource exploitation and tool classes. Coastal margins became more productive and creating reliable seasonal resources. This change precipitated a continued reduction in mobility and population growth. Shellfish were becoming more plentiful along the coast and in the freshwater sources of east central Florida. Some of the earliest shell midden deposits date to the Middle Archaic.

Late Archaic Period (5,000-3,000 B.C.)

Great seasonal fluctuations noted in the earlier periods had ended. The climate during the Late Archaic Period was wetter due to higher levels of precipitation and accelerated swamping. This swamping reduced arable land but caused an increased in aquatic resources. Inhabitants had begun their adaptation to wetlands during the Middle Archaic Period. The Late Archaic Period is dominated by an increased utilization of the Indian and St. Johns Rivers and coastal marshes. Late Archaic sites tend to cluster in and around these wetland areas. Extensive middens were developed along the fresh water marshes of the St. John's River. Coastal Archaic middens consisting principally of marine shellfish have been tested from the panhandle to southwest Florida. These are located along estuaries, beaches, and the mouths of rivers. Along the East Coast, Late Archaic middens are known from the Florida/Georgia border and as far south as Jupiter Inlet. Preceramic Archaic middens have also been identified along the northeast coast. These middens consist of shellfish common to beach and brackish estuarine environments as well as small components of freshwater shellfish. They are also characterized by the significant presence of small and large marine fish and, to a lesser extent, terrestrial vertebrates. They range from shell heaps to linear ridges and include occasional shell rings. Although this is not to say that Archaic peoples did not bury their dead in middens along the St. Johns River, either singly or in groups.

The end of the Late Archaic sometimes identified as a separate cultural period known as the Transitional Period. It is associated with the Mt. Taylor and the Orange Sub-periods (Table 1). Mt. Taylor is the final preceramic culture in Central Florida and dates to the Middle and Late Archaic. The exact date for Mt. Taylor is unknown but could have its origins in the Middle Archaic Period and may have started as early as 4,000 B.C. and as late as 3,000 B.C. This period is a cultural marker to define the start of distinctive and identifiable regionalization in east central Florida. Mt. Taylor Period is found within East-Central Florida (IRCA) and sites near the St. John's River suggest that freshwater snails and mussels were the most exploited food source. There is an increase in the use of fish such as shark, rays, and Atlantic croaker along the coast and estuarine-lagoon systems. Sites from both areas show a variety of fish, mammals, reptiles, birds, and amphibians were utilized as additional food.

The Orange Period is associated with the end of the Late Archaic and lasted from 3,000 to 1,000 years B.C. It is the first ceramic culture of Central Florida and is typified by fiber tempered and hand-molded pottery. There is an increase in the utilization of shallow dwelling fish, pond snails and mussels in the freshwater marshes. By the end of the Orange Period, there appears to be shift away from these foods to the exploitation of brackish lagoons and coastal margins. This may be due to over utilization of the freshwater resources or the result of population pressures .

Malabar Period (500 B.C.-AD 1565)

The Malabar Period evolved from the Orange ceramic culture, which existed at the end of the Late Archaic and lasted until the arrival of the Spanish in A.D. 1565 (Table 1). Characteristics of the culture included the absence of corn agriculture, and differences in language, religion and social organization. Rouse divided the period into two main subperiods: Malabar I and Malabar II. They are based upon changes in ceramic styles and some subsistence practices. Archaeologically, the only observable differences are the significant amounts of sand-tempered wares in the ceramic assemblages and the lack of exotic goods seen throughout the southeastern United States during the Mississippian Period. Nonetheless, Rouse considered the region a distinct archaeological area and suggested the cultural periods be classified as Malabar I and II with minor subdivisions and roughly paralleled those of the St. Johns periods. The predominance of sand-tempered ceramics in the southern portion of the region and St. Johns ceramics in the northern portion of the region show the Indian River area as a transitional zone between the Glades and St. Johns areas. Recent analyses suggest that both St. Johns and sand-tempered wares of the region could have come from local clay sources.

The IRCA or Malabar site types are different than those identified in the St. John's heartland. Mounded shell middens composed of fresh water mussel rather than snail and non-shell, small "household" middens replace large village middens which are characteristic of St. John's cultures. It appears that the IRCA groups depended on marsh resources rather than lake, swamp, and riverine resources like their St. John's counterparts. Consequently, their subsistence economy was different. It has been stated there is evidence that Indian River groups inhabited the interior portion of the Indian River as a cold weather strategy. The Malabar culture utilized villages or household sites that formed a nucleus for many small, specialized single use sites. Villages were often associated with middens and one or mounds nearby that served as cemeteries or house locations for the chief. This pattern was consistently used in the interior marshlands along the St. Johns River and along the coastal region.

Burials in all Malabar periods can be extended, flexed, or bundled. In some mounds, burials were placed in a spoke fashion around the center of the mound and then capped with sand, while others were placed head to toe in a circle in the center of the mound. Loose human bone is common in mound fill and may represent cleanings from charnel activity or disturbance of old burials when new burials were interred.

Lithic points appear to be of types associated with other regions or temporal boundaries. Common lithic tools in the Malabar area are limestone, coquina and sandstone abraders. Sharks were commonplace tools at coastal sites. Other faunal artifacts from this period are fishhooks, leisters, barbed points, pins and awls, drilled turtle shell, and weaving shuttles. Exotics include steatite and hematite stone tools, and copper objects.

Malabar I (500 B.C.-AD 750)

Malabar I is identified by the presence of plain chalky ceramics. In early examples of ceramics from this period inclusion of fiber tempering suggests the evolution from Orange Period wares. Use of linear decorative motifs is found in sites from this period and continues into the Malabar II Period. A red slipped ceramic known as Dunns Creek Red is found only during the latter part of Malabar I. During this period inhabitants lived primarily along the Indian River Lagoon and on the coastal barrier islands. The area along the St. Johns River was also inhabited, though the number of sites is very small in comparison to the number identified along the Indian River Lagoon.

There appears to be a temporal and spatial continuity at Malabar sites suggesting a continued use of the same village sites since the Late Archaic and Orange Periods. This is especially true with sites adjacent to wetlands. There appears to have been some influence in the Malabar I culture from the Weeden Island and Yent (Mississippian) complexes. However, the influence is overstated. Very few sites in the area contain a large quantity of goods representative of the Weeden Island or Yent complexes. When present, Weeden Island ceramics and exotic goods are rare and comprise a very small percentage of the artifact assemblages. Deptford ceramics and local ceramics with Deptford characteristics are seen during this period though in very low numbers. Dunns Creek Red ceramics begin to appear at the end of Malabar Ia. Malabar I is characterized by truncated sand burial mounds with both primary and secondary burial pattern, with secondary burial being the most common.

Malabar Ib (A.D. 500-750) is identified more by the presence of Dunns Creek Red ceramics than any other cultural marker. Again, ceramics include trade ware or local copies of Swift Creek and Weeden Island ceramics. By the end of Malabar Ib, Dunns Creek Red disappears from the archaeological record. Greenstone objects continue to be seen in burials but there is a dearth of galena, copper and mica. Again, the influence of exotic good procurement and the presence of these items are low in the IRCA.

Malabar II (AD 750-1565)

During Malabar II Period there appears to be a continued use of the same sites used in the Late Archaic and Orange Periods. The number of mounds and villages during this period suggests a population increase in the early part of Malabar II, before European contact. While to the north increased social complexity is exemplified in larger mound construction this was not the case of in the IRCA. By late Malabar II, however, populations were declining, possibly due to introduced diseases. Burial customs declined, and burials were placed in old existing mounds. At the end of Malabar II the Spanish identified the group of Indians occupying the Cape Canaveral Peninsula as the Ais. These people were organized into a chieftain level of social organization which maintained a nonagricultural subsistence economy based on hunting, fishing and gathering. Staple foods consumed by the Ais included fish, oysters and other shellfish, turtles, palm berries, sea grapes, and cocoa plums. In the project area vicinity, the local chief lived in a town called Ulumay located in the Indian River Lagoon and thought to be somewhere along the Banana River. St. Johns Checked Stamped is the defining ceramic type of this period. While the presence of check-stamped ceramics is a characteristic of this period it has been found to be a minority ware at many Malabar or St. Johns II sites. It is now becoming more apparent that the presence or absence of these decorated wares does not always signify a Malabar I vs. Malabar II site.

Previous research divided the Malabar II Period into three subperiods: Malabar IIa (A.D. 750-1050), Malabar IIb (A.D. 1050-1513), and Malabar IIc (A.D. 1513-1565). The emphasis was the influx of exotic goods, motifs, and art styles associated with the Mississippian culture and Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Again, it is the opinion that these SECC traits never had a significant influence due to the cultural conservatism.

The Malabar IIa (A.D. 750-1513) is typified by the lack of outside influence and a maintaining of the status quo. Exotics and some influence from the Mississippian culture and Southeastern Ceremonial Complex was present by A.D. 1000 but not enough to matter. Malabar IIb (A.D. 1513-1565) sites are distinguished by the presence of European goods in sites from this sub-period. It can be suggested that the influx of European goods via trade, shipwreck salvage, etc created a desire for these goods that had far reaching influence throughout the region and Florida. Some sites in the IRCA are thought to have contained mounds with earthen ramps . These sites also contain European goods. On the west coast of Florida the Calusa had mounds with earthen ramps. It could be speculated that European goods created a new trade network that was more far reaching in Florida than those established during the Mississippian Period. The east coast of Florida was the main shipping route for the Spanish Plate Fleet.


The prehistory described above was developed from a number of sources. Below is a listing of books and articles on archaeology and prehistory of Florida and the Indian River area that were used for the narrative above. Most of these can be found at your public or university library.

Andrews, Evangeline Walker and Charles McLean Andrews, editors
1981 Jonathan Dickinson's Journal. Southern Printing Company, Inc., Stuart, Florida.

Bense, Judith A. and John Phillips
1990 Archaeological Assessment of Six Selected Areas in Brevard County: A First Generation Model. Report on file, Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee, Florida.

Beriault, John, Robert Carr, Jerry Stipp, Richard Johnson and Jack Meeder
1981 The Archaeological Salvage of the Bay West Site, Collier County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 34(2): 39 58.

Brown, Robin C.
1994 Florida's First People. Pineapple Press, Inc., Sarasota.

Bullen Ripley P.
1954 Culture Changes during the Fiber-tempered Period in Florida. Southern Indian Studies 6:45-48.
1955 Stratigraphic Tests at Blufton, Volusia County, Florida. The Florida Anthropologist 8(2):1-16.
1958 The Bolen Bluff Site on Paynes Prairie, Florida. Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences No. 4. Gainesville.
1959 The Transitional Period of Florida. Southeastern Archaeological Conference Newsletter 6:43-53.
1969 Southern Limits of Timucuan Territory. Florida Historical Quarterly 47:414-419.
1972 The Orange Period of Peninsular Florida. In Fiber-tempered Pottery in Southeastern United States and Northern Colombia: Its Origins, Context, and Significance, edited by R. Bullen and J. Stoltman, pp. 9-33. Florida Anthropological Society Publications No. 6.

Doran, Glen H., editor
2002 Windover: Multidisciplinary Investigations of an Early Archaic Florida Cemetery. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Doran, Glen H. and David N. Dickel
1988 Multidisciplinary Investigations at the Windover Site. In Wet Site Archaeology, edited by Barbara A. Purdy, pp: 263 289. Telford Press, Caldwell.

Fiedel, Stuart J.
1987 Prehistory of the Americas. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Gilliland, Marion Spjut
1975 The Material Culture of Key Marco, Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

Goggin, John M.
1947 A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas and Periods in Florida. American Antiquity 13:114-127.
1948a A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archaeology. The Florida Anthropologist 1:57-60.
1948b Florida Archaeology and Recent Ecological Changes. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 38:225-233.
1949 Cultural Changes in Florida Prehistory. In The Florida Indian and His Neighbor, edited by John Griffin, pp: 13-44. Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida
1952 Space and Time Perspectives in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology No. 47, New Haven.

Goggin, John M., and Frank H. Sommer, III
1949 Excavations on Upper Matecumbe Key, Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology.

Griffin, John W.
1949 The Florida Indian and His Neighbors. Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida
1952 Prehistoric Florida: A Review. In Archeology of Eastern United States, edited by J. B. Griffin, pp. 322-334. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hann, John
1990 The Mayaca and Jororo and Missions to Them. In: Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp: 111-140. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
2003 Indians of Central and South Florida, 1513-1763. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Hudson, Charles
1976 The Southeastern Indians. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Jennings, Jesse D.
1989 Prehistory of North America. Third Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.

Milanich, Jerald T.
1994 The Archaeology of Precolombian Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
1995 The Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
1998 Florida's Indians from Ancient Times to the Present. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Purdy, Barbara A.
1981 Florida's Prehistoric Stone Technology. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
1988 Wet Site Archaeology. Telford Press, Caldwell.

Shofner, Jerrell H.
1994 The History Of Brevard County, Volume 1. Brevard County Historical Commission, Viera, Florida.
1995 The History of Brevard County, Volume 2. Brevard County Historical Commission, Viera, Florida.

Tebeau, Charlton
1981 History of Florida. University of Miami Press, Miami.

Widmer, R.J.
1988 The Evolution of the Calusa: A Nonagricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.

Willey, Gordon
1949 Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Zimmerman, Vera, editor
2001 The History of Brevard County, Volume 3. Brevard County Historical Commission, Viera, Florida

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